As we talked about in our first checklist about thoughts bending theories about the universe, the universe is an unlimited and mysterious place. For hundreds of years, individuals have appeared out into house and tried to clarify why we’re right here and the place we got here from. Whereas it could take much more centuries earlier than any of these questions are answered, it doesn’t imply scientists don’t have any theories.
We also needs to level out that these are simply theories, so at occasions, some theories could not align with one another, and even contradict one another.
10. Why is Darkish Matter so Laborious to Detect?
All through this checklist, we’ll speak about one thing known as darkish matter. Darkish matter makes up about 27 p.c of the universe and about 83 p.c of all matter. It’s invisible as a result of gentle doesn’t bounce off of it and it has a gravitational pull on common matter, that means it impacts the actions of galaxies and galactic clusters. Whereas it does have a gravitational impact, darkish matter can cross by way of common matter nearly undetected. For all of those causes, darkish matter hasn’t been detected but, however physicists are sure it exists.
One query is: why is it so exhausting to detect darkish matter in Earth-based experiments? One potential reply comes from a bunch of particle physicists known as Lattice Sturdy Dynamics Collaboration. Of their simulation, they discovered that darkish matter might need noticeable interactions with bizarre matter if they’re each in situations which can be much like the begin of the universe, which is extraordinarily high-temperature plasma. If their simulation is true, which means in the early days of the universe, darkish matter may have been observable.
The excellent news is that all these situations can now be recreated in the Massive Hadron Collider at CERN. Researchers are awaiting an opportunity to check the concept and for the first time, darkish matter could possibly be detected. If their concept is right, it might counsel that earlier than the universe cooled, there was a type of balancing act between matter and darkish matter earlier than they unfold throughout the universe.
9. Darkish Matter Killed the Dinosaurs
An asteroid is the almost definitely wrongdoer for what killed the dinosaurs. Nevertheless, what actually kicked off the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction 66 million years in the past continues to be debated. A really far out and cosmic concept comes from physicist Lisa Randall is that it was an impression occasion that was attributable to dark matter.
The premise of the concept goes again to the 1980s, when paleontologists David Raup and Jack Sepkoski discovered proof that each 26 million years since the Nice Dying of the Permian-Triassic, (which occurred about 252 million years in the past and 96 p.c of life was worn out), there was an incredible mass extinction. Upon additional analysis, going again a half a billion years in the past, it seems that Earth suffered some kind of cataclysmic occasion roughly each 30 million years, give or take a couple of million years.
Nevertheless, scientists have by no means actually certain why cataclysmic occasions would occur on a timetable like that. Randall’s concept is that darkish matter is concerned. Darkish matter is believed to be scattered all through the universe and it’s used as scaffolding on which galaxies, together with our dwelling the Milky Method, are constructed. As our photo voltaic system rotates round the Milky Method, it “floats” and at occasions, it bobs like a cork in the water. And this bob occurs about every 30 million years.
Once we bob, our photo voltaic system could encounter a disk of darkish matter. The disk would have to be one-tenth the thickness of the Milky Method’s seen disk of stars, and have a density of at the very least one photo voltaic mass per sq. light-year.
Matter and darkish matter can cross by way of one another, however darkish matter can have an effect on common matter by way of gravity. The result’s that when some matter floating in house comes into contact with darkish matter, it may ship issues flying all through the universe, which finally hit Earth.
If Randall’s concept is true, darkish matter could possibly be answerable for main components of the formation of the universe.
8. Life Unfold Throughout the Universe Like an Epidemic
When speaking about the universe, there’s one query that at all times pops up: is there clever life aside from our personal? Or are we simply alone right here? Nicely, scientists surprise about this too, and presently they’re how life, together with our personal, got here into existence.
In line with a analysis paper from the Harvard-Smithsonian Middle for Astrophysics, the most obvious reply is that life unfold from star to star, like an epidemic. The idea that life unfold from planet to planet and star to star is named panspermia, and naturally, in the event you’ve seen Prometheus, that idea is a serious plot level.
If life handed from star to star, that signifies that the Milky Method could possibly be filled with pockets of life. If the concept is right, then it’s potential that different planets in the Milky Method could host life as properly.
One other attention-grabbing factor they discovered of their calculations is that life could possibly be unfold by microscopic organisms that hitched a experience on an asteroid, or it even may have been unfold by an clever being or beings.
7. Why is the Universe Product of Matter?
Matter is every thing that takes up house and has weight, and the reverse of matter is named anti-matter. When matter and anti-matter contact, they annihilate one another, which is precisely what occurred at the begin of the universe and helped drive its enlargement. At the starting of the universe, there ought to have been an equal amount of matter and anti-matter. Nevertheless, if there was an equal quantity of each matter and anti-matter, they’d have canceled one another and the universe would have ceased to exist. This has led physicists to imagine that there was barely extra matter than anti-matter. An quantity as small as an extra particle of matter for each 10 billion antimatter particles would have been sufficient for matter to unfold out throughout the universe.
The issue was that whereas physicists knew that there was extra matter, they didn’t know why. That was till 2008, when researchers at the College of Chicago have been observing subatomic particles that lived very quick lives known as B mesons. The researchers, who received the Nobel Prize in Physics for his or her discovery, discovered that that B mesons and anti-B mesons decay otherwise from each other. Which means it’s potential that after the annihilations in the begin of the universe, the B mesons and anti-B mesons decayed otherwise, leaving sufficient matter behind to create all the stars, planets, and even you and every thing you contact, together with the air you breathe.
6. Dysfunction Made Life Attainable
Entropy primarily measures the quantity of dysfunction in a system. If one thing is excessive in entropy which means there may be extra dysfunction, and low entropy means there may be extra group. An instance to visualise that is with Legos. A Lego home would have low entropy and a field of random, disconnected items would have excessive entropy.
What’s attention-grabbing is that entropy could also be the cause that life exists in the first place, which doesn’t make a complete lot of sense in the event you check out the complexity of one thing like the human mind, which is the pinnacle of order.
Nonetheless, in accordance with a concept by assistant MIT professor Jeremy England, increased entropy may be responsible for life in the universe. England says that, underneath very best situations, a random group of molecules can self-organize themselves to effectively use extra vitality of their surroundings. How entropy performs into that is when vitality is added to a system. The molecules bounce and bounce off one another. If a couple of have been to clump collectively, and vitality was used extra effectively, it might proceed to carry collectively, gathering extra molecules, till ultimately sufficient molecules clump collectively to change into a life type. Nevertheless, if there wasn’t a excessive entropy state, the molecules would have by no means been bouncing off one another. Subsequently they’d have by no means clumped collectively and led to life.
This concept nonetheless has plenty of testing to undergo. Nevertheless, if England is right, then an knowledgeable prompt that his name would be remembered the identical manner we bear in mind Charles Darwin.
5. The Universe Has No Starting
The prevailing concept of the begin of our universe is that over 13.8 billion years in the past, from a degree of singularity, the Massive Bang gave delivery to the universe and it has been increasing ever since.
The Massive Bang was first theorized in 1927 and the mannequin relies on Albert Einstein’s concept of basic relativity. The issue is that there are some holes in Einstein’s concept; primarily that the legal guidelines of physics break earlier than reaching singularity. One other massive drawback is that the different dominant concept in physics, quantum mechanics, doesn’t reconcile with basic relativity. Additionally, neither relativity nor quantum mechanics clarify or account for darkish matter. Which means though the Massive Bang is one among the best theories about how the universe began, it is probably not right.
Another concept is that the universe was by no means at the level of singularity and there was no Massive Bang. As an alternative, the universe is infinite and doesn’t have a starting or an finish. The researchers arrived at this concept by making use of quantum correction phrases to Einstein’s concept of basic relativity utilizing an older mannequin of deciphering quantum mechanics known as Bohmian Mechanics. And no, we’re not precisely certain what which means, however good for them.
Their methodology of testing the concept can even assist account for darkish matter. If their concept is right that the universe is infinite, it might imply that the universe has pockets of a superfluid stuffed with theoretical particles, like gravitons and axioms. If the superfluid matches the distribution of darkish matter, then it’s potential that the universe is infinite.
4. The Universe Ought to Have By no means Existed
Science fiction author Ray Bradbury as soon as wrote, “We’re an impossibility in an unattainable universe.” And in accordance with a mannequin primarily based on the Higgs boson particle from King’s Faculty London suggests he couldn’t have been extra proper, as a result of the universe shouldn’t exist.
The issue is that 10-36 seconds after the Massive Bang to someday between 10-33 and 10-32 seconds, the universe underwent one thing known as cosmic inflation, which was a speedy enlargement of the universe. If that’s true, the inflation would have brought on quantum fluctuations, or jolts, in the vitality discipline. These jolts would have been so robust that they’d have pushed the universe out of the Higgs discipline, which is answerable for giving particles its mass, and the universe would cease to exist. After all, because you’re studying this, that this mannequin isn’t right. So why does the universe exist when it shouldn’t?
One risk is that the findings are fallacious. One other is that there could also be some new physics or particles which have but to be found. Nevertheless, till we determine it out, we must always simply really feel fortunate to be right here after we theoretically shouldn’t.
3. The Universe Began Off One Dimensional
A generally held perception about the universe is that the Massive Bang was an exploding sphere, however one other concept posits that for the first thousand-trillionth of a second of the Massive Bang, it was truly a one dimensional line. Vitality would race forwards and backwards earlier than creating a cloth, which is the second dimension. Then it morphed into three dimensions, which is the world we see.
If the mannequin is right, it might assist address a few problems with the commonplace mannequin of particle physics, resembling the incompatibility between quantum mechanics and basic relativity, and cosmic inflation. Nevertheless, if this concept is true, it might solely result in extra mysteries, like what mechanisms have been used to make the universe morph into the completely different dimensions?
2. How Many Dimensions Are There?
In the final entry, we talked about how the universe could have advanced into three-dimensions; nonetheless there are lots of extra dimensions than that. In line with Superstring Principle, there are at least 10.
Right here is the way it works: the first dimension is only a single line, the second dimension is peak, the third is depth, and fourth is length. The place it begins to get a little bit bit bizarre is dimension 5. That’s the place the multiverse concept comes into play. In the fifth dimension there’s a universe that may be very very like our personal and we might be capable to measure similarities and variations. The sixth dimension is a airplane the place there are parallel universes with all the identical beginning situations, so if our universe began with the Massive Bang, so did theirs. The seventh dimension is a airplane filled with worlds with completely different beginning situations.
Now, if all that wasn’t complicated sufficient, the eighth dimension is the place issues begin to get actually difficult and people have issues understanding it. Mainly, the eighth dimension is all potential worlds, all with completely different beginning situations, they usually department out infinitely. After all, issues solely get extra mind melting from there. In the ninth dimension, there are all potential universes that begin with completely different preliminary situations and the legal guidelines of physics of those universes could be fully completely different. In the 10th and ultimate dimension anything is possible, and that’s simply one thing people can’t even fathom.
1. We’re Dwelling in the Distant Previous of a Parallel Universe
The time period “time’s arrow” was first launched in 1927 and it aptly describes the circulate of time. People understand it as at all times going ahead and it additionally obeys the second regulation of thermodynamics so entropy at all times will increase; eggs are cracked and scrambled they usually by no means unscramble and reform inside the shell.
The issue is that if time solely goes ahead, a lot of the best equations about how the universe works, like James Clerk Maxwell’s theory of electrodynamics, Isaac Newton’s law of universal gravitation, Einstein’s special and general relativity or quantum mechanics, could be incorrect. Nevertheless, if time ran forwards and backwards, then they’d all work perfectly. A method that that is potential is that at the Massive Bang, two parallel universes have been began. One the place time strikes ahead, and a parallel one the place time flows backwards.
The reasoning is that, if entropy will increase in our universe, then when the universe began, it might have begun in a low-entropy and extremely ordered state. That could possibly be the finish of one other universe. That universe would begin at the finish and time would circulate backwards, whereas ours flows ahead.
If we may see the different universe, we might see time going backwards and we might most likely see into the way forward for our universe (presuming that we’re not previous the center age of the universe) and we’d be residing in the parallel universe’s distant past. That’s, in fact, if we’re not the actuality that’s residing in reverse and don’t understand it.